Animals are Eukaryotic multicellular organisms. They are heterotrophic that is some are flesh eating and some are grass eating. They transfer energy from the food they eat, and that depends on whether they are eating flesh or not. The rate of transfer of energy in them is strickly governed by the Lindeman’s law. What separates them from others and each other is their capability to understand, search food and shelter for themselves. Some of them have greatly developed this power of understanding due to which they are being domestically used. Some of the intelligent animals are described below:

  • Dogs: the most intelligent and obeying is dog. Humans judge its intelligence on how quickly they learn to obey the commands given to them, and how quickly they are able to identify objects. Their association with humans for a long time has led them to be completely attenuated to humans and their behavior. They perform many roles for humans like pulling loads, protection, herding, hunting, assisting police and military, companionship etc. All these activities has made them “man’s best friend”. Their strong power of smelling makes them perfect for the use in military, police and also for the anthropologists. Their species varies from place to place depending on the environmental conditions.

  • Dolphins: they are now only a few of them left, they are aquatic animals. The unique feature that makes them different from others is the special voice called as whistle (vocal signature) they produce to communicate with each other; this gives them their unique identity. It’s equivalent of each other calling by name. They develop very strong relationship with humans. It is also seen that sometimes they help people under water come to the surface so that they can breathe. Sometimes they also protect the swimmers from the attacks of the sharks. There are reports that they also help the fishermen catch fishes.

  • Chimpanzees: these resemble humans to about 99%. These are the closest living relatives of humans and one of the most intelligent animals among all. They can understand sign language. Like humans they can walk on two legs if they wish to. Just like humans they give rise to their young ones and have very well developed motherhood. They make tools and use them to acquire food. They are also seen to build nests for themselves by nesting the branches together. They communicate with each other just like humans and during this time an area in the brain is activated which is same in position as the language center known as the Broca’s area in humans. Research has also shown that they have well developed photographic memory and can identify numbers as well.

  • African Green Parrot: they are very smart and have great counting ability and vocalization skills. They are highly intelligent and show good reasoning ability. They are very amusing and affectionate. On training it can talk and can perform amazing tricks. They are intelligent, graceful and sometimes turn out to be moody too.

  • Pigs: they have excellent long term memories, understand symbolic languages and can solve mazes easily. Studies have shown that they exhibit cognitive bias and can be optimists or pessimists like humans. Because of their foraging ability and excellent sense of smell they are used to find truffles in many European countries. Research shows that they can even play video games and can even indicate temperature preferences in their surroundings. They protect their younger ones and form strong bonds with other pigs.

  • Pigeons: They can learn mathematical rules and can make intelligent choices also. They can recognize individuals with their facial expressions. In the early time they were used as messengers. They are used in cognitive science such as distinguishing between cubist and an impressionist painting. They are known to have orthographic processing skills, that is the ability to read, and basic numeral skills just like those of primates. Besides they are also used for experiments in biology and medicine.

  • Elephants: They have impressive learning ability and are self-aware. They can recognize themselves in the mirrors. They are highly social, helpful and compassionate. They communicate with each other with the help of their trunks and feet that generate seismic activity. They communicate with each other by touching which is also very important for mother-calf communication. They can even learn and distinguish between several visual and acoustic discrimination pairs. They are seen to use tools just like apes. They can even feel emotions like humans and can express concerns.

  • Crow: their brain size is that of a human thumb and is known to be very intelligent. They can recognize and remember human faces. They have amazing problem solving ability and communication skills. They stay in groups. A group of crows is known as “murder”.

  • Rhesus Monkey: they live in groups. They are also very intelligent. They communicate with each other by the special voice they produce. They give off different pitches to warn off danger, call a mate and even to call their younger ones. They are also seen to use tools like sticks or rocks. Just like humans they show love, anger, sadness even mourn on the loss of anyone from the group. Their brain size is large and are intelligent than apes and lemurs. They are exotic pets and many are trained for assistance and companionship.

  • Whales: they are aquatic and feed, mate, give birth, suckle and raise their young ones at sea. Whales use their vocalization ability to communicate. Some of them have been seen to mimic human speech. They are known to teach, learn, cooperate, scheme and even grieve. The neo-cortex of many species of whales is home to elongated spindle neurons similar to hominids. In humans these are involved in controlling social emotions, conduct, judgment and theory of mind. They are also known to be engaged in complex play behavior such as production of stable underwater bubble rings. Earlier they were used to shape the art forms of many coastal civilizations, such as the Norse, with some dating to the Stone Age.

  • Octopus: They have very large brains. A common octopus has 130 million neurons in its brain in comparison to a human who has only 100 million neurons in the brain. Three fifth of its neurons are situated in the arms; each arm has a mind of its own. Problem solving experiments have shown evidence of a memory system that can store both short and long-term memory. If trained they can distinguish between different shapes and patterns. They have been shown to practice observational learning. They also have been seen to use tools such as coconut shells, manipulating them and then reassembling them to use as shelters.

Thus, animals are the share-holders of the ecosystem. Without them the energy cycle will come to an end and the energy pyramid would fall. The hunting of animals should be stopped the endangered ones along with others should be conserved; instead they should be treated with care and concern, just like the other intelligent animals.

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